by Ron Kurtus
Readers have sent in a total of 26 comments and questions on Machines issues. They are listed according to date.
You can read them to further your understanding of the subject.
|Efficiency of a screw jack||Efficiency||Ghana|
|Increase mechanical advantage in simple machine||Mechanical Advantage||Uganda|
|Increasing efficiency through use||Efficiency||Nigeria|
|Finding center of gravity of a small machine||General||Australia|
|What do you lose with force advantage?||Mechanical Advantage||SA|
|What is the physics behind force and a lever?||Levers||USA|
|Need correction on Class 3 lever||Levers||USA|
|When is mechanical advantage equal to 1?||Mechanical Advantage||Nepal|
|Formula for calculating efficiency of a machine||Efficiency||Nigeria|
|Mechanical advantage greater than 1||Mechanical Advantage||Nigeria|
|Why is a class one lever more efficient?||Levers||Pakistan|
|Using a lever in dental braces||Levers||USA|
|What type of lever is a bicycle handlebar?||Levers||India|
|Class of janglover lever||Levers||Nigeria|
|Rolling friction in bearings||Bearings||Kuwait|
Efficiency of a screw jack
January 5, 2017
A screw jack is being used to support the axle of a tractor,the load on it being 2.4 KN.The screw jack has an effort of effective radius 200 mm and a single-start square thread,having a load of 5 mm.Determine the efficiency of the jack if an effort of 60 N is required to raise the tractor axle.
DAASI - Ghana (27787)
Efficiency is the output work divided by the input work. Work is defined as the force times the distance moved.
The input force is 60 N and the output force is 2.4 KN. According to your configuration, you need to determine how far the input and output forces move to determine the work ratio.
Increase mechanical advantage in simple machine
January 4, 2017
How can mechanical advantage of simple machines be increased
mercy sharleen - Uganda (27782)
It depends on the type of simple machine. In a lever, you can change the distance from the fulcrum to change the mechanical advantage. See Mechanical Advantage Relationships
Increasing efficiency through use
December 26, 2016
Can the efficiency of a machine increases through consistent use or frequently ?
Felix - Nigeria (27581)
Factors that can reduce the efficiency of a machine are friction and heat build-up. In some machines, friction may be increased if it is not used often. This can be due to oxidation of the surfaces. In such a case, using the machine more often can reduce or eliminate this type of friction, thus increasing its mechanical efficiency.
Finding center of gravity of a small machine
October 31, 2016
Hi School of Champions
I've built a small machine in my home workshop that is a little heavy to rotate about an axis, before I redesign it in cad I need to calculate the center of gravity & force required to rotate it based on the current design and compare it to a revised cad design.
I can send a simple image that shows the problem.
Thank you, your help here would be much appreciated.
Darryl - Australia (27428)
The Center of Gravity article shows ways to find the COG. However, that might not be practical in your situation. But it might give you some ideas.
If you could hang the machine from a wire, you could find the COG. Rotating it from the wire with no friction would depend on its mass.
What do you lose with force advantage?
September 28, 2016
When you gain a force advantage you usually lose what?
Sphilile - SA (27334)
The force mechanical advantage requires a greater input distance than the resulting output distance.
What is the physics behind force and a lever?
September 17, 2016
Can you explain the physics behind the lever ? I know how to calculate, and understand it is the product of force*length, but I don't understand the force distribution(?) of why the force is increased due to the length ?
What is the mechanism that makes it works ?
Roy - USA (27294)
That is a very good question, and it is not often mentioned in textbooks.
The relationship between forces and lengths of the lever arms is dependent on the Law of Conservation of Work and Energy. Work is defined as the force times the distance moved.
I updated several pages to show the derivation of the equation. See Increasing Force with a Lever.
I hope that helps your understanding.
Need correction on Class 3 lever
July 24, 2016
Please reverse the location of the fulcrum for the 3rd class lever. It should be above the lever, rather than below it. The lever will not work as illustrated. Unlike a 2nd class lever, there's no support there.
Clyde - USA (27167)
Thanks for pointing that out to me. It was very perceptive of you to notice that. Many resources on Class 3 levers simply place the fulcrum at the bottom.
I updated Levers are Simple Machines and to show requirements for the Class 3 lever fulcrum.
I hope that corrects the issue.
When is mechanical advantage equal to 1?
July 18, 2016
in what condition MA<1 MA>1 and MA=1 ?
bhabin - Nepal (27154)
The mechanical advantage (MA) equals 1 when there is no increase in the output compared to the input. An example is a pulley, where you simply change the direction of the object when you pull on the rope.
Formula for calculating efficiency of a machine
May 29, 2016
Formular for calculating efficiency of a machine
fatosa - Nigeria (27035)
The formula for the efficiency of a machine is E = Wo/Wi where Wo is the output work and Wi is the input work.
The output work is always less than the input work, because of losses due to friction and heat.
The work equals force times distance Wo = F*d.
Mechanical advantage greater than 1
April 26, 2016
When machanical advantage of a machine is greater than 1,what is the implication ? Is the machine a good machine or a bad machine ?
jimoh - Nigeria (26966)
You want the machine to have the force mechanical advantage to be greater than 1. That way you can lift a greater load than your effort.
Why is a class one lever more efficient?
January 10, 2016
why class one lever is more efficient
sneha - Pakistan (26676)
Efficiency is related to the distance that the object is moved divided by the distance the force moves. A Class 1 lever is arranged to move the object further for a given force than the other classes of levers.
Using a lever in dental braces
December 6, 2015
I am an orthodontist and will be speaking to a high school group soon on applied physics in orthodontics.
My question: attaching a longer wire in front of and behind a displaced tooth (say high up in the gum) certainly places less force on the displaced tooth than if the wire is shorter between the wire attached to the teeth in front and behind:( i.e, the wire is attached to the upper central incisor, bypasses the lateral incisor, attaches to a high displaced canine, bypasses the first bicuspid and attaches to the second bicuspid, thereby bypassing the teeth in front of and behind the high displaced canine to lessen the force to bring down the displaced canine).
What is considered the fulcrum, the load and the force? I presume that the displaced tooth is the load and the adjoining teeth are the fulcrums and the wire is the force? Are both arms of the portions of the wire in front of and behind the tooth considered effort arms vs. load arms?
Also, is this an example of a class one lever or a class 2 or 3 lever? Is there a better way to describe the physics property as to why a longer wire to the displaced tooth exerts lesser force than a shorter wire? Thanks so much for your help! Dr M Wintner, Pittsburgh
Dr. Morton - USA (26592)
I am not sure I can visualize how the wires are placed and the orientation of the lever. Perhaps the following two articles would help to answer your questions:
Torque control in lingual orthodontics with lever arm mechanics: a case report.
Locating the center of resistance of maxillary anterior teeth retracted by Double J Retractor with palatal miniscrews.
I hope that helps. Best wishes for success in your presentation.
What type of lever is a bicycle handlebar?
July 5, 2015
What type of lever is bicycle handle bar
Shantanu - India (26153)
While a standard lever pivots about a stationary fulcrum, a bicycle handlebar is used to turn or rotate the fulcrum. This is similar to the use of a screwdriver.
Instead of calling it a lever, handlebars could be classified as a tool to create a torque on the steering shaft.
Class of janglover lever
June 24, 2015
Which Class Of Lever Is A Janglover?.
Samuel - Nigeria (26120)
I am sorry, but I don't know what a Janglover is.
Rolling friction in bearings
April 9, 2015
The following is a question appeared in one exam and the two answers
given by two different websites for the same are given below
13. Ball bearings are used in bicycles, cars, etc., because__:
A. The actual area of contact between the wheel and axle is increased
B. The effective area of contact between the wheel and axle is increased
C. The effective area of contact between the wheel and axle is reduced
D. None of the statements is correct
The basic premise in friction theory is that anything that reduced the area of contact between the wheel and axle will decrease the friction. Since the ball is a sphere, it only contacts the wheel and axle at a very small point, which helps it spin very smoothly.
Friction is independent of Surface Area
Hashir - Kuwait (25902)
If a hard object is sliding on a hard surface, the resistance from friction is approximately independent of the surface area in contact, However, ball bearings aren't meant to slide. Instead, they roll, and rolling friction is different and much less than sliding friction.
The reason ball bearings are used in bicycles and cars is so that they can roll around the axle, as opposed to having the wheel slide around the axle.
See: Rolling Friction for more information.
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