8. Variation of Tactics in War
by Ron Kurtus (revised 16 October 2016)
The eighth chapter in the classic book "The Art of War" by Sun Tzu concerns the importance of variation of tactics in war.
The general who thoroughly understands the advantages that accompany variation of tactics knows how to handle his troops. The general who does not understand them will not be able to turn his knowledge to practical account. The student of war must be versed in the art of war of varying his plans will make the best use of his men. But there are also five dangerous faults of a general that would be ruinous to the conduct of war.
Questions you may have include:
- Of what must a general be aware in varying his tactics?
- How does varying tactics help in victory?
- What are the five dangerous faults?
This lesson will answer those questions.
In war, the general receives his commands from the sovereign, collects his army and concentrates his forces
When in difficult country, do not encamp. In country where high roads intersect, join hands with your allies. Do not linger in dangerously isolated positions. In hemmed-in situations, you must resort to stratagem. In desperate position, you must fight.
There are roads which must not be followed, armies which must be not attacked, towns which must be besieged, positions which must not be contested, commands of the sovereign which must not be obeyed.
The general who thoroughly understands the advantages that accompany variation of tactics knows how to handle his troops.
The general who does not understand these, may be well acquainted with the configuration of the country, yet he will not be able to turn his knowledge to practical account.
Must be versed in varying plans
So, the student of war who is un-versed in the art of war of varying his plans, even though he be acquainted with the Five Advantages, will fail to make the best use of his men.
Hence in the wise leader's plans, considerations of advantage and of disadvantage will be blended together.
If our expectation of advantage be tempered in this way, we may succeed in accomplishing the essential part of our schemes.
If, on the other hand, in the midst of difficulties we are always ready to seize an advantage, we may extricate ourselves from misfortune.
Reduce the hostile chiefs by inflicting damage on them; and make trouble for them, and keep them constantly engaged; hold out specious allurements, and make them rush to any given point.
The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.
Five dangerous faults
There are five dangerous faults which may affect a general:
- Recklessness, which leads to destruction;
- Cowardice, which leads to capture;
- A hasty temper, which can be provoked by insults;
- A delicacy of honor which is sensitive to shame;
- Over-solicitude for his men, which exposes him to worry and trouble.
These are the five besetting sins of a general, ruinous to the conduct of war.
When an army is overthrown and its leader slain, the cause will surely be found among these five dangerous faults. Let them be a subject of meditation.
You must thoroughly understand the advantages that accompany variation of tactics and how to handle your troops. You must combine advantage and disadvantage in your tactics. Dangerous faults of a general can be ruinous to the conduct of war.
Variation can confuse the enemy
Resources and references
The Art of War by Sun Tzu; Running Press Book Publishers (2003) $4.95
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8. Variation in Tactics in War