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Understanding Tools and Machines

by Ron Kurtus

Tools are devices that are use principles of physics, electronics, and chemistry to perform simple tasks, such as cutting or grasping. Humans and even some animals use tools to achieve various goals.

Machines extend the capabilities of tools and use energy to do work. They usually consist of moving parts. Machines run from simple to highly complex ones that are solely based on electronics.

The purpose of these lessons is to help you gain understanding the basics of tools and machines, such that you will become a champion in the subject. If you have any questions, send me an email.

Machines Contents


Overview of Machines

Simple machines

Tools Used to Perform Simple Tasks

Simple Machines

Mechanical advantage

Mechanical Advantage in Machines

Distance Mechanical Advantage

Speed Mechanical Advantage

Force Mechanical Advantage

Mechanical Advantage Relationships


Levers are Simple Machines

Three Lever Classes

Relationships in Levers

Increasing Force with a Lever

Increasing Distance Moved with a Lever

Increasing Speed with a Lever


Ramps are Simple Machines

Effect of Friction in Ramps

Other machines

Cylinder and Piston Drive Engines

Electrical Machines

Hand Cranked Flashlight


Efficiency of Machines

Rollers Reduce Friction

Bearings Reduce Friction

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